Developed nations grew rich, in part, through over exploiting natural resources, dumping greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere, and encouraging consumerist lifestyles with little concern for the long-term effects on our collective home, planet Earth. Today, these patterns are being replicated in developing nations. In countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRICs), there is a rising global middle class that desires to live an American-style of life, complete with cars, refrigerators, air conditioners, and other sources of pollution. Factors contributing to this social, economical, and global problem include inadequate responses to climate change, increases in global consumption, and dangerous dependency on non-renewable resources of energy. What is needed is a Green Energy Revolution, which includes development of an energy policy in developing countries. Specifically, the international community needs to collectively explore green, energy-efficient ways of living and producing that include (1) switching from the use of fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy alternatives and more efficient systems, and, (2) focusing on developing and implementing green policy in these countries.
Table of Contents:
As we watch the sun go down, evening after evening, through the smog across the poisoned waters of our native earth, we must ask ourselves seriously whether we really wish some future universal historian on another planet to say about us: ”With all their genius and with all their skill, they ran out of foresight and air and food and water and ideas,”’ or, ”They went on playing politics until their world collapsed around them.” (U Thant, 1970)
The extraordinary demographic changes that are taking place in the emerging BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) countries and their adoption of an inefficient, consumerist lifestyle fed by dirty, non-renewable energy sources are polluting the environment and jeopardizing the survival of the human race. The central thesis of this research is that this global problem which can be solved by a Green Energy Revolution. This paper will identify and summarize the problems mentioned above, recommend a viable solution, and conclude with a vision of the future with a unified global economy and a greener, cleaner environment.
The first of many problems to be addressed is the demographic changes within the BRIC countries. Their population growth, especially in China and India, is multiplying at unparalleled rates. Planet Earth has never before been faced with the task of sustaining such a massive population. Within these populations, there are sizeable groups of individuals who consume massive amounts of resources and energy due to their energy-profligate lifestyles. These groups comprise the global middle class, which originated in the United States, but will be largely composed of the BRIC populations in the near future.
Along with a budding population come many negative social effects, and those countries impacted the most are the less developed countries (LDC). The BRIC populations will increase the demand for consumer goods, natural resources, and energy. Their excessive demands will strain the global resource and energy pools which will further increase financial poverty as well as “energy poverty” within the LDCs. The economic growth of the BRICs is fueling their rise as world powers that are predicted to surpass the current developed economies in the United States and Europe.
One main problem is that this growth is fed by dirty forms of energy, chiefly oil and coal. The BRIC addiction to oil and gas is allowing authoritarian governments that control the supply of oil to rise to power, hindering global green progression, and destroying the environment. Also, there are not enough fossil fuels available to meet their projected growth, making it crucial that they switch to green energy. Protecting the environment will be one of the prevailing problems of the 21st century. It is imperative we find a global solution before the long-term effects on environment are beyond the point of no return.
The BRICs because are emerging as the top contenders for economic, social, and resource power. In addition to their enormous size and international presence, they will become the biggest contributors to global environmental problems and the energy crisis. A Green Energy Revolution that is deeply rooted within, and widely accepted among, the BRIC countries would have the potential to make the biggest impact on saving the environment as well as serving as a model for the less developed countries to follow.
The Growing Problems
The Population Bomb
An inescapable contributor to energy crisis is the global population bomb, or the “crowded” component, especially in the BRIC countries. The term “crowded” refers to the unprecedented numbers of people that will be added to the population in the coming decades. The global population could reach 8.3 billion by 2030 and 8.6 billion by 2035.1 The bulk of this expansion will occur in the developing countries. In the poorest twenty-four countries of the world, the population is estimated to increase by 70% by 2050.2 The BRIC countries already contain 42% of the global population and within the next 50 years that number is predicted to increase to 70%.3 China will have the largest share; using a three stage model to predict their future population, it is calculated for China to reach 1.6 billion before leveling off in 2038.4
Global Middle Class. Since the Industrial Revolution, the U.S. has created a middle class population that desires a luxurious lifestyle that is encouraged by American capitalism. America’s middle class has adopted this culture based on mass consumption and consumerist lifestyles. This population enjoys a wasteful lifestyle that is being emulated in developing countries. Friedman has labeled these populations as “Americums” or the “flat” populations.5 His definition of an “Americum” is any group of 350 million people with a per capita income above $15,000 or more and a growing penchant for consumerism.”6 The problem lies within the growing middle class consumers of the rising BRICs. The BRIC countries feel entitled to enjoy the same extravagant lifestyle that America established years ago. The world cannot accommodate “Americums,” especially where the population is growing at unparalleled rates. The growing scarcity in land, water, and energy will be the biggest obstacle for the growing populations of these countries. Already arable land has decreased and will decrease by another 12% by 2050 due to agriculture reconstructing, rapid urbanization, and other environmental issues.7 The BRIC countries need to recognize this lifestyle is unrealistic for sustaining their populations.
The rising global middle class will impact developing and developed nations alike. There will be large increases in these “new” Americumians, mostly in India and China, plus the existing middle class population in the U.S. The global middle class is projected to increase to 52%, from the current 30%, of the world population.8 Friedman forecasts the number of “Americums” to quadruple.9 This is an additional 1.8 billion people consuming large amounts of energy and resources.10 China already has a middle class of 600 million people–larger than the entire U.S. population.11/12 A few critics view the middle class with optimism because of the positive social changes it could produce. Some predict additional “Americums” will decrease poverty, create new jobs, and introduce a more productive consumer market. It is doubtful that a larger middle class can improve the social or economic conditions in these countries. More consumption will put strain on resources and have a negative impact on their economic growth. The middle class will supply their workforce. By the end of 2010, the global working population will be more than three billion and up to four billion by 2040. In Shanghai, alone it is expected that an additional 200,000 people will be added to the working population.
The rise of “crowded” and “flat” populations will bring about a third demographic change, the transfer of 400 million people to cities with additional mega cities added to the developing world.13 Three-hundred and fifty million people will relocate to the cities in the next twenty years.14 Urbanization is a new trend for developing countries, primarily in Asia and Africa. In addition, numerous large cities will become megacities. The number of megacities has risen from five in 1975, to 14 in 1995, and will reach 26 by 2015. Each of these megacities comprised of 50 million people or more.15 The problem with the colossal size of these cities is the fact that many of these countries lack the necessary infrastructure, resources, and government institutions to sustain large numbers of people. The disadvantage of these ill-equipped cities is that they will experience the negative effects of urbanization which include cyclical unemployment, inadequate policies, poor sanitation, labor stride, increased violence and revolutions within the urban populations. Urbanization is a precursor to suburbanization, all of which is fueled by oil and coal.
The Oil Dilemma
The BRICs dependence on foreign oil raises issues of international security and economic interdependence.16 The BRIC and world energy security is threatened because two-thirds of reserves are in the Middle East. Imports supply one-half the oil and 15 percent of natural gas to the BRICS. Any “oil supply shocks” will sabotage the economies dependent on Middle Eastern countries for oil.17 Oil is providing power for OPEC (Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries). Countries in OPEC are uncooperative with energy reform programs and will not comply with norms to conserve energy and reduce pollution. China is heavily dependent on foreign oil, which makes up 43% of total oil consumption in that country.18 China obtains much of their oil from the Middle East, especially Iran. The prices of oil are expected to rise due to the Persian Golf Conflict. Friedman shows that as the price of oil increases, people’s freedoms decrease.19 Autocratic governments in the region do not give the people a voice in their government’s decisions.
All countries need to expand and diversify their energy supplies by switching to new suppliers of oil and investing in alternative, clean, renewable energy sources. Even as the world switches to renewable energy sources, oil will continue to fuel the energy system for the next few years. Countries need to partner with other rising oil suppliers such as Russia, West Africa, and North and South America, rather then the OPEC countries. During 2010, the Caspian Basin, located in Russia, could produce up to 5 million barrels of oil. In Africa, countries like Nigeria need more foreign investment for offshore oil and gas reserves in order to participate. Canada and Mexico have untapped supplies of natural gas which would be a more secure and reliable long-term supply.20
The Rise of the BRICs
In recent times the BRICs are growing in size and power at extraordinary rates. They cover 26% of the world’s landmass and 42% of the global population.21 The G6 (United States, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Italy) have grown linearly, while the BRICs are growing exponentially.22 With this growth, the BRIC coalition is expected to surpass the G6 countries and overtake up the G7 countries (G6 countries plus Canada) sometime in 2020.23 Some hope that one day all major powers, including the BRICs, will combine to make a more potent G20.24 Many developed countries, such as Canada, have already been surpassed by China and other BRICs are soon to follow.25
A Greener China
Without a sustainable China, there can be no sustainable world. (Bjorn Stigson President of World Business Council)
China’s government has taken tiny steps forward making changes to policy and taking on a few green initiatives. China has secured many firsts through their 12th five-year social and economic plan.26 One goal of the plan is to cut emissions by 50% by 2020.27 Green initiatives include development of 23,000 sq. miles of new forests, expansion of sewage treatment, cleaner production standards, and some innovation policy in science and technology. China’s green technology has helped to continue increasing the nation’s food supply. China has also explored cleaner sources of energy. In 2007, China followed Germany in renewable energy development.28 In 2009, China was the largest maker of wind turbines and largest manufacturer of solar panels.29 China pioneered in green technology by building the first zero-energy sky scraper that uses wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, and radiant cooling panels.30 China is cutting emissions by building greener cities with new transportation systems. China plans to close all generators with less then 300,000KW, which will lessen coal dependency.
Increasing Damage to the Environment:
Climate change is expected to exacerbate current stresses on water resources from population growth and economic and land-use change, including urbanization. On a regional scale, mountain snow pack, glaciers and small ice caps play a crucial role in freshwater availability. Widespread mass losses from glaciers and reductions in snow cover over recent decades are projected to accelerate throughout the 21st century, reducing water availability, hydropower potential, and changing seasonality of flows in regions supplied by melt water from major mountain ranges (e.g. Hindu-Kush, Himalaya, Andes), where more than one-sixth of the world population currently lives. (The 2010 Synthesis Report by IPCC)
Climate change is one of the most debated phenomena among scientists, politicians, world leaders, and people all over the world. This is so, in part, because climate change is difficult to measure. More significantly, the long term catastrophic effects are seen as abstract threats in some undefined future while the costs associated with addressing climate change are seen to be real and immediate. However, if the world does not collectively embrace “Code Green” as part of a Green Energy Revolution, it could cause irreversible damage to the Earth’s environment. We are already seeing many effects of global climate disruption; rising oceans, changing weather patterns, deforestation, and biodiversity loss are merely a fraction of the environmental effects of climate change.31 Additionally, there are numerous predicted social and economic costs which would result in up to 10% loss in world GDP, and even more devastating for economies of developing countries.32
Today developed countries are responsible for 63% of fossil fuel emissions, but only make up 20% of the population. World War II had serious environmental long-term effects such as major oil spills and radioactive contamination. Most of the pollution originates from cities of developed countries, which are also the centers for development. In particular, the U.S. and Europe expend 25% of world carbon emissions, while China is responsible for 7% and India 2%. Yet, U.S. and Europe makeup 20% of the population and China and India comprise 40% of the population.33 CO2 emissions have been climbing since 1970. Fossil fuels and deforestation were the two main causes in 2004. Fossil fuels make up 56.6% of CO2 emissions. The top four sectors that are sources of waste and wastewater are energy, industry, agriculture, and forestry. These sectors should be targeted for green reform and innovation.
Friedman has labeled the 21st century as the “Energy Climate Era.”34 It is the convergence of climate change and the demographic trends mentioned earlier. Climate change is defined as “changes in climate caused by change in concentration of gas in the atmosphere due to greenhouse gases.”35 The breakdown of pollution shows that greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), are the chief cause of climate change. Starting in the mid-18th century, CO2 levels were at 280 ppm by volume of CO2 and today we are at 384 ppm.36 The principal greenhouse gases are CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.37 Out of these CO2 and methane are the primary two gases, which are 30% higher than pre-industrial levels.38 1 Since 1970, they have increased 70%.39 The degree in which the climate fluctuates in temperature is limited by “climate sensitivity.” This is the ability of the climate to absorb the CO2.40 Today’s fossil fuel combustion and deforestation are so relentless they are no longer limited by climate sensitivity. Furthermore, they are beginning to craft holes in Earth’s protective ozone layer. At this point is does not matter who was responsible for damages done in the past. The BRICs will be the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases with a population that exploits resources and consumes energy more than any of today’s advanced countries.
Green Energy Revolution
Energy is essential for development, yet two billion people currently go without, condemning them to remain in the poverty trap. We need to make clean energy supplies accessible and affordable. We need to increase the use of renewable energy sources and improve energy efficiency. And we must not flinch from addressing the issue of over consumption – the fact that people in the developed countries use far more energy per capita than those in the developing world. (Kofi Annan, Secretary General, United Nations)
I am proposing a Green Energy Revolution, which encompasses all the goals of the first Green Revolution but focuses more on international cooperation and making the switch to green, renewable energy alternatives. This is a global movement with unified, future-oriented change toward a greener world. The rise of the BRICs is the primary concern and the green conversion must transpire there. China and India are the biggest energy and resource users; therefore, it is especially important these countries play by the rules for the Green Revolution to be effective. If the BRICs can make the switch to green energy, they can then assist the poorer countries in joining this global endeavor. Green energy is the key to providing food security and energy needs. The plan will begin by coordinating the large, developed countries with energy security and environmental protection.41
Making the switch to green energy is focused on developing renewable, clean power sources and energy efficient systems. If we can successfully reduce our dependency on dirty fossil fuels, it will improve the environmental problems and combat petropolitics and global poverty. The energy sector is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The atmosphere is the dumping zone for greenhouse gases such as CO2, which makes up 80% of the pollution. Other nonrenewable energy sources include methane, natural gas, and coal. Agriculture and fossil fuels have led to increases in the amount of methane found in the environment. Natural gas is odorless, colorless, and non-corrosive, but is still non-renewable energy source. Coal is the largest contributor to domestic atmospheric pollution. Coal makes up 14% of the worlds resources and will increase ten times in the next fifty years.42 China and India are the world’s leading emitters of coal.43
The switch to green energy sources is part of a low-carbon path to green energy production. Building low carbon communities is one way to ensure green growth. The carbon market for emission has approximately 4900 Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) worldwide, many of which are located in China, India, and Brazil. The BRICs should incorporate the 4-Step path to carbon reduction into their current CMD projects. The IEA estimates growing and maintaining future energy supplies to an investment of $20 trillion by 2030.
Four Step Plan: Building the World with Green BRICs44
The Sterns Low-Carbon path will be used as a model for the Green Energy Revolution proposed in this paper. Sterns focuses on cutting greenhouse gas emissions for goods and services while increasing efficiency in technology and avoiding practices which consume large amounts of energy. Below is an outline of the four main ideas of the model to address the main problems the global economy. If the BRIC countries made the suggested changes below, it would establish a solid foundation for the green movement. This version of the model can be applied to the advanced countries as well.
Step 1. Increase the global food supply, while reducing environmental impact and demand for energy-expending goods and services.
The global middle class will demand more consumer goods, food, and resources, which is not sustainable or compatible with long-term goals of the Green Energy Revolution. The American-style of life is complete with energy-efficient cars, refrigerators, air conditioners and other sources of pollution. The increased production of consumer goods, food, energy, space, and more fossil fuels released in the atmosphere will overwhelm any green progress made in other countries. The challenge will be transforming energy, raw materials, operations and productions with cleaner technological innovations and infrastructure.
Food production can be environment friendly and use less energy with water efficient systems, less harmful fertilizers, and biotechnology. The first Green Revolution was centered on increasing food production and relied heavily on the biotechnology GM crops. These are high-yielding, transgenic crops that pose a threat to biodiversity and affect the quality of food. After seeing the failures of the first Green Revolution, China has switched to using local varieties of seeds for food production. One technique that China has developed is household seeds that are tailored to local needs, which reduces the risk of GM crops. Improving local seeds rather then bringing new species is an excellent method of using new technologies to increase the food supply. It is important to match the crops with the climate and weather conditions. This will allow maximum efficiency, lower costs of production, and use less resources to the maintain crops.
Step 2. Reinvent the BRICs with efficient, green technology.
BRICs need to endorse green research and development, employ clean energy technologies, and encourage low-carbon energy investments to make goods and services more energy efficient. It is important to replace outdated infrastructure and developing better energy conservation and production practices. Research and development is crucial to expanding current technology and producing new, greener alternatives. During the first green revolution research institutions lacked cooperation and communication. In the last decade there was $187 billion invested in energy and electricity projects in developing countries.45 Today there is $2.5 trillion spent on stimulating green development in the global economy.46 During the next decade, the BRIC countries should aim to double energy investments before the global middle class explodes.
This involves two key players, the creative minds of entrepreneurs and the active participation of government institutions for policy implementation. Idealists, innovators, and a creative atmosphere encourage expansion of new ideas. The global recession has reduced R&D funds, which has put green development at a standstill. It has also caused richer countries to give less money for poor countries to develop. As the Green Energy Revolution takes off, more developed countries must reverse this and contribute more money to the green initiatives in less-developed regions. The governments of the BRIC countries have to provide direct economic stimulus to attain green energy goals. Code Green is an expensive undertaking.
Step 3. Switch to renewable energy alternatives.
Renewable energy is the most reliable and efficient way to produce energy with the least amount harm to the environment. The BRICs need to take responsibility for their growing populations by switching to green energy. They need to eradicate anti-green practices and integrate green in all sectors of their economies. By 2050, the global economy must “de-carbonize” almost completely through reductions in energy emissions by 50%.47 The U.S. has started initiatives to make solar, bio-energy, hydro, and fuel cell acceleration major energy sources. There are numerous other clean-energy alternatives that are currently being developed. Governments should facilitate research in a variety of technological developments ranging from renewable energy projects to improvements in fossil fuel efficiency to the latest breakthrough projects like Carbon Capture.
Step 4. Switch to low-carbon technology for power, heat, and transportation.
It is important to target green change in these high-energy sectors, because the switch to renewable energy can make a big impact on reducing energy usage and helping the environment. Transportation makes up 13.1% of waste. In the U.S., transportation makes of 70% of the oil use and three-quarters of that is for cars.48 With the rise of the middle class and urbanization, there will be more vehicles added in the BRICs. This means increased CO2, maintenance costs, and fuel demands. As a result, there will be additional stress on the environment, as well as health problems due to increased pollution. The Chinese population is buying larger cars and will double carbon emissions by 2030.49 The BRICs will transition to a one to three people/per car ratio, which is twice the number of cars they currently have.
Transportation can be revolutionized by switching to energy-efficient cars and planes and by using cleaner fuel sources.50 Car companies can significantly reduce emissions by making changes at the assembly stage known as the “use phase.” Toyota has considerably decreased emissions by replacing cleaner technologies during assembly of their cars.51 One problem with new technology is the high price of hybrid and electric cars makes these energy-efficient cars only available to wealthy populations. More R&D will drive the prices down as vehicle production transforms from traditional to modern.
Increased international travel is expected to boost the greenhouse gases emitted by planes up to five times the current level.52 Recent technological developments in plane engines and alternative fuel are important to energy savings. The U.S. is already making the transition to diesel engines and biofuel. Diesel engines are still being perfected in design to run solely on Jet A fuel. Biofuel can provide a fuel savings of 8% decreased emissions of 25%, and 13% more energy per/gallon.53
The available alternative fuels for vehicles and their physical qualities, advantages, and drawbacks.54 Many of these are good alternatives to fuel and diesel, but need better technology and development to reduce costs and increase the demand. All of these are cleaner-burning and renewable alternatives unlike conventional fuels and can dramatically reduce air pollution.
A Globally Unified Economy with Green Energy Policy
There is now no single global energy policy. Policies are set in a local or national context, reflecting local or regional priorities, even if the consequences of the policy reach beyond national borders. (2009 World Energy Council)
We need a common global energy policy that addresses the current energy crisis as well as the long-term problems that will be created by increased populations, especially those in the BRIC countries. The government is a major player to implementing green policies and energy incentives. Governments must develop green energy policy with the international cooperation and communication between countries. Green energy reform must be sustainable financially, socially, and environmentally. Green policy should aim to decrease fossil fuel dependency and increase R&D, tax reforms, and new equipment standards.55 Policy can reduce fossil fuel dependency with “climate friendly” policy. This will lower emissions and fuel costs, ultimately reducing the amount of greenhouse gases in the environment.56
The implementation of energy policy is the next step. In order for energy policy to be affective it must be widely accepted by the general public and businesses. Businesses will play the role of employing policy by lending “investors, risk-takers and implementers…[for] policy frameworks and selecting the best energy options.”57 Innovation and efficient technology in business can be an affordable and even profitable. In return, governments should offer incentives for businesses to get involved through green stimulus programs to help ignite this revolution. This would also encourage cleaner business practices and building and producing with green technology. This must also be a market-based solution that uses decentralized, market-oriented green energy reform governed by effective international institutions.58 A recent survey reported that only two-thirds of developing countries had begun taking market-oriented steps toward energy reforms.59 Developing countries have to reorganize their economies with new market rules. Normal market practices will enable the BRICs to exploit green technology with open energy options, education opportunities, and productive investments, while stimulating the global economy.60 In response, energy users need to coordinate market rules, their interests, and green spending.61 If the government can improve energy policy it will improve industry practices, which is necessary to maximizing industrial capabilities and reducing damages to the environment.
The cooperation of the BRICs with other developed countries is vital to establishing a unified global economy in a greener, cleaner world. In addition, poorer countries are not capable of participating without the assistance of more advanced countries. The BRICs will add a considerable amount of greenhouse gases to the environment and, therefore, be a contributor to energy and resource crisis. Even if the developed countries initiate the first green steps in the movement without the BRICs and less-developed countries, any progress made will be short-lived. International cooperation can lead to global prosperity and sustainability.
History shows that a unified global economy is possible if countries get past prejudices and focus on international collaboration. In the 1970s, economic growth revived with free trade and investment.62 Afterward, a global market economy was established with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, along with China’s introduction of market mechanisms.63 Trade, development, industrialization, and business will all become intertwined in a global economy. The World Trade Organization is the umpire between all countries in global trade. They established the rules to follow and keep trade between the G7 countries functioning. The changing nature of the global economy makes it difficulty to maintain order and peace. The BRICs, particularly China, can no longer incorporate “protectionism” in trade.64
Global development is essential to the global economy. It has increased the world income and doubled the median income of the world.65 At the same time the global economic growth, at 3%, is expected to increase the demand for energy by 1.6% per year and rise 50% between 2005 and 2030. This includes increases in demand for liquid fuel from 1.2% to 35% and barrels of oil from 83.6 million barrels to 112.5million barrels by 2030.66
Development calls for expansion of industrialization, urbanization, and careful allocation of resources. Industrialization in the largest cities of developed nations will support this global economic growth. Today Frankfurt, London, and New York City are the hub for the world economic activity.67 Eventually these cities will have to raise property taxes forcing upper-middle class families to leave. Along with the rise of the BRICs will be the rise of new financial sectors. China, Brazil, India, Mexico, and Turkey will contain newly industrialized cities.68
The benefits of a green world include the following:
- Improve overall human health by decreasing infant mortality rates and health problems, while increased life expectancy
- Significantly reduce environmental impact of humans
- Switching to renewable energy would prevent acid rain and toxic and nuclear waste
- Creation of green jobs in many countries
- Decrease greenhouses by at least 30%
- Supply global energy and food security
- New economic growth opportunities
- Reduce poverty and increase standard of living for developing countries
- Provide reliable energy and interconnected systems between countries
The rise of the BRIC countries in the next few decades will include demographic changes with a growing middle class population who will demand more energy and resources that our world has the ability to supply. A Green Energy Revolution is the solution to solve the major social, economic, and environmental effects of their growing populations. Switching to alternative forms of energy will create a more unified global economy in a world that is cleaner and more energy efficient.
There are four main components to the Green Energy Revolution. First, is diminishing the global dependency and demand of oil which fuels the growth of petro-dictatorships like Saudi Arabia, Iran and Russia. Second, the switch to renewable and green energy sources as part of a low-carbon path to green energy production. Third, Code Green can only triumph if there is a worldwide effort aimed at reaching long-term sustainability goals. Lastly, sustainable research and development is essential to improving current technologies, while creating new information and energy technology. If the world can collectively embrace this Green Energy Revolution through implementation of green policy and exploring energy-efficient ways of living and producing it can provide a solution to the sustaining the global (and BRIC) population. The BRIC populations are the most important countries in the near future because of their mounting power, unprecedented economic growth, and great potential to serve as a role model for green development for less developed countries. They have the opportunity to partake in the commencement of the greatest green movement in history. Saving the Earth, sustaining the global population, and ensuring the future livelihood of humankind are the principal goals of a Green Energy Revolution. These are the victories I want historians to remember about the leaders and countries of 21st century.
- Richard N. Cooper. “Doubling Our World’s Economy.” World Policy Journal, 25 (2008): 41.
- Goldstone, 3.
- Peter Ho. “Trajectories for Greening in China: Theory and Practice.” Development & Change 37, (2006): 12.
- Friedman, 56.
- Michael Wambi. “Africa; Calls for Sustainable Green Revolution.” Intern Press Service, (July, 4 2009): 3. ABI/INFORM Global.
- Moisés Naím. “Can the World Afford a Middle Class?” Foreign Policy, no. 165, (2008): 96-97 ABI/INFORM Global.
- Friedman, 56.
- Ibid, 57.
- Naím, 96-97.
- Michael Lind. “America.” Foreign Policy no. 172, (May 1, 2009): 89-90. http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2053/ (accessed April 29, 2010).
- Friedman, 60.
- Bob Herbert. “Watching China Run.” New York Times, Late Edition, (February 13, 2010) http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2053/ (accessed April 30, 2010).
- Moore, 500.
- Larson, 215.
- Moore, 500.
- Friedman, 80.
- Larson, 216.
- Lui Juhong.. “BRIC Building Road to Global Economic Recovery.” (June 18, 2009) Lexis Nexis Academic. Chinadaily.com.cn.
- Mark Lehrer, Christian Delaunay. “Multinational Enterprises and the Promotion of Civil Society: The Challenge for the 21st Century Capitalism.” California Management Review 51, no. 4 (2009): 128. Business Source Complete, ebscohost (accessed April 30, 2010).
- J. Mccallum. “Looking for Clues on the Economy.” Ivey Business Journal Online, (2009): 1-4. Retrieved April 30, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1923947981).
- Jim O’Neill. “We Need BRICs to Build the World Economy.” The London Times, (June 23, 2009): 24. Retrieved April 30, 2010, from Lexis Nexis.
- Richard Blackwell. “Five Things; BRIC.” The Globe and Mail (Canada), (2008): B2. Retrieved April 30, 2010, from Lexis Nexis.
- Wen Jibao. “Financial Crisis to Bring About Technological Change.” Xinhua, New China News Agency, (December 28, 2009). Nexis Lexis Academic. (accessed April 30, 2010).
- Victor, 62.
- Brett Hansen. “China to Construct ‘Zero-Energy’ Skyscraper.” Civil Engineering (08857024) 77, no. 1 (2007): 10-11. Science & Technology Collection. EBSCOhost (accessed April 30, 2010).
- Friedman, 134.
- Stern, ix.
- Ibid, Baumert.
- Friedman, 26.
- Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Summary for Policy Makers. IPCC.
- Ibid, 117.
- Allyson Wendt. “EPA Declares Greenhouse Gases a Threat to Humans.” (January 1, 2010). BuildingGreen.com
- Ibid, Baumert.
- Ibid, Climate Change.
- Alex Wilson. “Design for Adaptation: Living in a Climate-Changing World.” (September 1, 2009). BuildingGreen.com.
- Victor, 62.
- Ho, 15.
- Ibid, 16.
- Stern, vii.
- Navroz K. Dubash. “The Power of Choice: Governance and Outcomes in Electricity Sector Reforms.” World Resource Institute (2003). http://earthtrends.writ.org/features/view_feature.php?theme=6&fid=51.
- Victor, 68.
- Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Summary for Policy Makers. IPCC.
- Ibid, Bromley.
- Jennifer Wheary. “The Global Middle Class is Here: Now What?.” World Policy Journal 26, no. 4 (2009): 75-83. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 29, 2010).
- Reinton, 229.
- Ibid, Austin.
- Friedman, 60.
- Tech.view. “Into the wild green yonder.” Economist, (January 23, 2010): 1- 3, http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2053/ (accessed April 30, 2010).
- McGraw-Hill’s AccessScience. “Alternative fuels for Vehicles.” http://www.assessscience.com/popup.aspx?id=757512&name=print.
- Ibid, Baumert.
- World Energy Council, 66.
- Navroz K. Dubash.“The Power of Choice: Governance and Outcomes in Electricity Sector Reforms.” World Resource Institute. (2003) http://earthtrends.writ.org/features/view_feature.php?theme=6&fid=51.
- Cooper, 42.
- Victor, 64.
- Mayer-Foulkes, 1.
- Mayer-Foulkes, 1.
- Victor, 66.
- Cooper, 42.
- Samuel Frimpong. “Global Energy Security: The Case for a Multifaceted Solution Strategy.” J. Energy Engrg. Volume 134, Issue 4, (December 2008): 109-110.
- Lind, 89-90.
- Goldstone, 2.